Fillet – a thin cut of meat, fish, poultry, removed from the bone
Filet mignon –A small steak from the tender loin of beef
Fine herbs – A fine mixture of herbs used to season
Flan – Open tart
Food - it gives our body energy
Foie gras – Goose liver
Fond – Basic Stock
Fondant – Thick liquid sugar icing
Fondue – A cheese dish of melted cheese. Pieces of bread And meats are dipped in it.
Frappe – Iced
Fricassee – A white stew
Fumet – Concentrated stock from fish And shellfish
Galatines – Stuffed chicken or veal in the from of a large roll, usually glazed with sauce And decorated for cold
Garbanzo Beans - Medium size, round, beige, firm beans with a nutty flavor, also known as chickpeas. A
popular salad bar ingredient; also used in Mexican foods And a main ingredient in hummus - a Middle Eastern
Garbure – A thick vegetable soup
Gartde-Manger – Cold kitchen, a chef in charge of the cold foods in the kitchen
Glacer – freeze to chill, to cook to acquire a shiny surface. To slightly brown food in a salamander
Gnocchi – Dumplings made from potatoes
Gratin – Browned surface of foods cooked in a hot oven or salamander
Hacher – To chop finely
Half-and-Half; Half & Half - is a mixture of equal parts milk And cream, And is 10 to 12 percent milk fat. It cannot
Halva - a sweet dish or candy made from ground sesame seeds, fruit or vegetables. Near Eastern in origin.
Hang - to tenderize game or meat by hanging in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place.
Herbs - any of a large group of annual And perennial plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a
flavoring; usually available fresh And dried.
Hollandaise - a sauce made of butter, egg, And lemon juice or vinegar.
Hygiene - Conditions And practices followed to maintain health, including Kitchen Clean Up And personal
Jardiniere – A fresh mix of vegetables cut into julienne
Jus – The natural juice of mats
Jus lie – Thickened meat juices
Julienne - Vegetables, potatoes, or other items cut into thin strips; 1/8 inch by 1/8 inch by 1 to 2 inches/3 mm by 3
mm by 25 to 50 mm is standard. Fine julienne is 1/16 inch by 1/16 a inch by 1 to 2 inches/ 1.5
Lactic Acid - a colorless liquid produced as milk sugar ferments And milk sours. It is used to curdle milk in
Lard – Bacon or salt pork
Larder – To lard by inserting strips of fat into tough meat with a larding needle to make tender
Leeks - A member of the onion family which does not form a bulb. Leeks are a thick stalk that resemble a large
green onion without a bulb.
Liaison – A thickening or binding agent, commonly egg yolk or heavy cream to thicken soups And sauces
Lozenge cut - A knife cut in which foods are cut into small diamond shapes.
Macedoine- Diced, mixed vegetables or fruits
Magnum - a single bottle with a capacity of two bottles or about 2/5 gallon, or 160 centiliters.
Maître d' hôtel - Dining room manager or food And beverage manager, informally called maitre d'. This position
oversees the dining-room or front-of-the-house staff. Also, a compound butter flavored with chopped parsley And
Marinade - An appareil used before cooking to flavor And moisten foods; may be liquid or dry. Liquid marinades
are usually based on an acidic ingredient, such as wine or vinegar; dry marinades are usually salt-based.
Medaillons – Round pieces of meat
Melanger – To mix two or more ingredients together
Melt - Heat slowly in a pan until the ingredient becomes a liquid.
Mirepoix – Dice vegetables And herbs used to flavor stocks, sauces And soups
Mise en place – Everything in place
Mince - To cut food into very small pieces. The terms "finely chopped" And "minced" can be interchangeable.
Combine ingredients, usually with a spoon or electric mixer, so they are all evenly blended.
Molasses - A syrup made from natural sugarcane juices, clarified, reduced, And blended. To produce table sugar,
raw sugar is processed into refined sugar. The remaining syrup is the sweetest molasses. Additional processing
results in darker And stronger tasting molasses called black strap.
Monter – The beating of cream, egg whites
Napper – To coat with sauce
Neat - an undiluted alcohol.
Nutrition - The processes by which an organism takes in And uses food.
Nicoise - Italian dishes made with tomatoes; Nicoise olives, garlic, beans, anchovies, etc, prepared "Nice" style.
Salad Nicoise is made with potatoes, olives, beans, And a vinaigrette dressing.
Nougat - A confection made from sugar And honey, sometimes mixed with fruit and/or nuts.
Paille – Straw (potatoes)
Panada – A binding agent
Pan-broiling - A cooking method similar to dry sautéing that simulates broiling by cooking an item in a hot pan
with little or no fat.
Pan-dressed - Portion-size whole fish, dressed.
Pan frying - A cooking method in which items are cooked in deep fat in a skillet; this generally involves more fat
than sautéing or stir frying but less than deep frying.
Pan gravy - A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from a roast And combining them with a roux or other
starch And additional stock.
Pan-steaming - A method of cooking foods in a very small amount of liquid in a covered pan over direct heat.
Parcook- To partially cook an item before storing or finishing by another method; may be the same as blanching.
Parchment - Heat-resistant paper used in cooking for such preparations as lining baking pans, cooking items
en papillote, And covering items during shallow poaching.
Paprika – Hungarian And Spanish red pepper
Pâté - A rich forcemeat of meat, game, poultry, seafood, and/or vegetables, baked in pastry or in a mold or dish.
Pâtissier - Pastry chef. This station is responsible for baked items, pastries, And desserts. This is often a
separate area of the kitchen.
Paysanne – Triangular shapes slices of vegetables
Petits fours – Small fancy cakes, decorated And iced
Pilaf – a rice dish with out meat
Poach – To cook in simmering liquid
Proof - Swelling or expanding. When yeast swells And becomes bubbly, it "proofs". Dough proofs when it swells
And rises to twice its original size.
Puree – Mashed, sieved or blended
Radicchio - A salad green with red And white leaves; varieties range from mild to bitter.
Ragout – A rich stew made of meat or poultry
Ramequin – A dish in witch food is cooked And served
Reduce - Boiling a liquid until its volume is reduced by evaporation, thickening And condensing the liquid And
intensifying the flavor.
Reduction – The result of reducing by boiling down sauces to increase consistency, richness And thickness
Render - Melting animal fat over low heat to separate it from any connective tissue, turning this tissue crisp And
brown. The clarified fat is then strained. Cooking fatty meats, such as bacon or spare ribs, until the fat melts.
Resting - Meat juices are driven from the surface as it cooks. Allowing meat to "rest" before slicing lets the juices
return to the surface, resulting in more flavorful meat.
Roux – Thickening agent made of equal parts of butter And flour, cooked
Sabayon – A sauce resembling custard, mainly used for puddings or vanilla ice cream
Sachet Bag - Cloth bag filled with selected herbs used to season stocks And sauces
Salamander – A small broiler used to brown or gratin foods
Tabasco Sauce - A hot sauce comprised solely of vinegar, red pepper, And salt.
Tempura - Seafood and/or vegetables that are coated with a light batter And deep-fried.
Toss – To mix with rising And falling action
Tripe – The edible lining of stomach (beef)
Unmold - to remove food from its container, usually a decorative mold. Gelatin And fatty dishes can be unmolded
by setting briefly in hot water, then reversing over the serving dish.
Unsweetened chocolate - chocolate liquor or mass, without added sugar or flavorings; used in baking.
Unsaturated fat – A kind of fat that is in liquid form at room temperature
Veal - meat from calves slaughtered when younger than 9 months (usually at 8 to 16 weeks); has a lean, light
pink flesh, delicate flavor And tender, firm texture.
Vegetable Oil - a general term describing blends of different vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, rapeseed,
cottonseed and/or soybean oils; these blends are generally intended to have little flavor And aroma And to be
used as all-purpose oils.
Veloute - A sauce made with veal stock, cream, and tightened with a white roux.
Venison - meat of deer.
Vent - to allow the circulation or escape of a liquid or gas.
Veronique - usually means garnished with white grapes.
Vert-Pre - a green herb sauce; also, a garnish of straw potatoes And watercress served with grilled meat.
Volume - the measurement typically used to measure liquids; volume measurements are commonly expressed
as liters, teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, pints, gallons, fluid ounces and bushels.
Zest – Citrus grind
Zucchini - Green Italian squash. A moderately long cylindrical summer squash with smooth, dark green
skin with a slightly bumpy surface, creamy white-green flesh And milk flavor; also known as a courgette
(especially in Europe).
Ice Bath - a mixture of ice And water used to chill a food or beverage rapidly.
Infuse - to steep herbs And other flavorings in boiling liquid. Coffee And tea are examples, And so is milk
steeped with vanilla bean.
Iodized Salt - table salt (sodium chloride) containing potassium iodide, a source of the essential nutrient iodine.
instant-reading thermometer - A thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of foods. The stem is
inserted in the food, producing an instant temperature read-out.
Kasha -Buckwheat groats that have been hulled And crushed; usually prepared by boiling.
Kebab; Kabob - minced meat or cubes of meat on a skewer, usually marinated before cooking.
Knead - Mix or work a dough until it stays together And is smooth And elastic. To knead, dust flour where you are
working And on your hands. Add more if needed, while you work. Make a ball out of the dough And press down
once on it with the heels of your hands. Turn the dough about a quarter of the way around And fold it in half
towards you. Press again with the heels of your hands. Keep turning, folding And pressing (about 10 minutes)
until the dough does not stick.
Kosher - Prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.
Offset spatula - A hand tool with a wide, bent blade set in a short handle, used to turn or lift foods from grills,
broilers, or griddles.
Oregano - an herb (Origanum vulgare) And the wild form of marjoram; has a woody stalk with clumps of tiny, dark
green leaves that have a pungent, peppery flavor And are used fresh or dried, principally in Italian And Greek
cuisines; also known as wild marjoram.
Quahog - A hard-shell clam larger than 3 inches/7.5 mm in diameter, usually used for chowder or fritters. Also
Quenelle - A light, poached dumpling based on a forcemeat (usually chicken, veal, seafood, or game) bound
with eggs that is shaped in an oval by using two spoons.
Quiche - A dish that is a light custard mixture of eggs, cheese And sometimes a meat or vegetable fillings,
baked in a pastry shell.
Warm - to heat a food using a very low temperature of approximately 105*F to 115*F (40*C to 45*C).
Wash - to apply a liquid to the surface of an object to remove dirt; often a cleansing agent is added to the liquid;
the process may not kill microorganisms.
White chocolate - Cocoa butter flavored with sugar And milk solids. It does not contain any cocoa solids, so it
does not have the characteristic brown color of regular chocolate.
Whole-wheat flour -Flour milled from the whole grain, including the bran And germ. Graham flour is a whole-
wheat flour named after Sylvester Graham, a nineteenth-century American dietary reformer.
Yarrow - an aromatic herb used in flavoring omelets, stews And salads.
Yeast - Microscopic fungus whose metabolic processes are responsible for fermentation. It is used for
leavening bread And in the making of cheese, beer, And wine.
Yogurt - Milk cultured with bacteria to give it a slightly thick consistency And sour flavor.
Xérès - French for Sherry Wine.
XL - abreviation for extra-large, such as extra-large eggs.
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