Abaisse – A piece of dough rolled to required size.
Abattis – Wiglets, giblets of poultry.
Abricot – Apricot.
Achar/Achard - pickles And salt relishes used in the cooking of India
Acetomel - A mixture of honey And vinegar that produces sweet-sour syrup. Traditionally used to
Achira - South American plant used as arrowroot.
Acid Rinse - a bath of acid lated water used to prevent discoloration of peeled fruits And
vegetables that brown when exposed to air.
Acidulated Water - cold water with vinegar, lemon or lime juice added.
Adobo - A puertorrican seasoning used to flavor beef, chicken And fish
Adjust - in cooking, the term means the cook must taste before serving, And add seasonings to suit
his or her own sense of what the right flavor is.
After taste - Taste which returns to the mouth after ingestion of certain foods And beverages.
Agiter – To stir.
Ala – In the style of.
A la carte – A list of food items each priced separately.
A la mode – In the fashion.
Al dente – firm, to the bite.
Anglais – English style, (bland-plain cooked food).
Antipasto – Italian cold appetizer.
Aromates – Herbs, spices And flavorings.
Arrowroot – Starch obtained from arrowroot plant, used to thicken.
Aspic – A clear jelly made from the concentrated liquid in which meat, poultry or fish was cooked.
Au bleu – A term to describe the cooking method. Cooking live fish in court bouillon.
Au four – In the oven.
Au jus – Natural juice.
Baking Powder -A leavening agent of which the most common is double-acting baking powder,
called so because it reacts first with liquids And secondly, with the heat during baking. A good
substitute for 1 teaspoon of baking powder is 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream
of tartar. Periodically, check the expiration date on your can as baking powder loses its leavening
power over time.
Baking Soda - A leavening agent, activated by interacting with something acid. Liquid ingredients
like sour milk, sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt, molasses, And lemon juice help baking soda produce
the gases which in turn make a batter rise. The batter should be baked as soon as possible after
the liquid has interacted with the baking soda.
Bain-Marie – A double boiler used for cooking.
Barder – To cover meats with fat during cooking process.
Baste – To moisten the meat in the oven, to avoid over drying.
Batter – A liquid dough, usually thin enough to pour.
Bechamel – Basic milk sauce (white). One of the 5 mother sauces.
Bisque – A thick cream soup made from shell fish.
Blanc – White.
Blanchir – To blanch; to partially cook by immersion in water briefly, And shocking in ice water
Bleu – Blue, applies to very rare cooked meats
Blind Bake - To bake a pie crust without the filling. Metal weights or dried beans are usually used
to keep the pastry from bubbling.
Boullion – Reduced meat stock.
Bouquet garni – Thyme, bay leaves, celery, parsley And leek tied together And used to flavor
stocks And soups.
Braiser – to braise - A method of cooking by which food (usually tougher cuts of meat, large
poultry, or vegetables like cabbage, chicory, And artichokes) is first browned in fat, then cooked,
tightly covered, in a small amount of liquid at low heat for a lengthy period of time. The long, slow
cooking develops flavor And tenderizes foods by gently breaking down their fibers. Braising can be
done on top of the range or in the oven.
Bread Flour -Bread flour contains a higher level of gluten, a protein that provides the structure
And elasticity necessary for yeast dough.
Brine - A salt water solution used for preserving foods.
Brochette – Cubes of meat on a skewer; broiled.
Bronoise – Vegetables cut into fine, small dice, made from julienne.
Bulgar - a wheat product sold whole or cracked. It can be used in many of the same ways as rice.
When cooked, it has a nut like flavor And a slightly chewy texture.
Butterfly - To split a piece of food down the center, cutting almost through. The halves are fanned
open And laid flat to cook or fry. The fan resembles a butterfly.
Cake Flour - Flour that's milled from soft wheat with a lower protein And gluten content than
other flours. It has a fine uniform texture, well suited to lighter baked goods which do not need
Candy Thermometer - Usually a large glass mercury thermometer that measures temperatures
from about 40 degrees F to 400 degrees F. A frame or clip allows it to stand or hang in a pan
Canapes – Pieces of toasted bread, garnished And served as appetizers.
Caramel – Melted sugar to the brown stage.
Caramelize – To cook, to release natural sugars, or until reaching the brown color.
Carcase – Bone structure with out the meat.
Cartouche – A greased round of paper used to cover meats during the cooking process.
Casserole – A fireproof dish, or food prepared in a casserole dish.
Cayenne – A hot red pepper.
Champignon – Mushroom.
Chantrelles - Mushroom.
Chantilly – Whipped cream sweetened with sugar.
Chateaubriand – Double steak cut from the beef tender loin.
Chiffonnade – A ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables
Chinoise – A cone shaped strainer or sieve.
Clouter – Onion studded with cloves.
Compote – Stewed fruit.
Concasser – to chop roughly.
Coq au vin – Chicken that is cooked in wine sauce.
Corser – To flavor And enrich.
Cote – a cut of meat, a piece of meat attached to the rib.
Court-Bouillon – A poaching liquid used to cook fish.
Croquette – Breaded, deep fried.
Croutons – Toasted pieces of bread.
Daikon - a Japanese radish.
Damson - a type of plum best used in cooking or for jams And jellies.
Darne – A thick steak of salmon.
Decant - to pour a liquid, generally wine, from one container to another. Red wine is decanted to
remove the sediment deposited during the aging process.
Dash - a seasoning measure indicating a scant 1/8 teaspoon or less.
Dashi - a clear fish stock which is the basis of Japanese dishes.
Date - the fruit of a palm tree (phoenix dactylifera) native to the Middle East And Mediterranean
region; most varieties are long And ovoid (some are more spherical) with a thin papery skin that is
green, becoming yellow, golden brown, black or mahogany red when ripe, extremely sweet flesh
with a light brown color, chewy texture And a single, long, narrow seed; eaten fresh or dried.
Daubiere - a cooking pot with a tight-fitting lid used for braising.
Deep-Fat-Frying - to cook in hot fat (about 360 degrees) that is deep enough for food to float -
usually a minimum of 3 inches.
Deglaze - to pour hot stock, wine, or water on the de greased sediment left in the roasting or
frying pan in which meat has cooked. The purpose of deglazing is to dissolve the caramelized
juices of meats dropped during the cooking process. This process is the secret of rich gravies, And
a vital step in making good casseroles And soups.
Degrease - to skim the fat from the top of a liquid such as a sauce or stock.
Dehydration - a process that removes the water content from food.
Deglaser – Deglaze , to remove trussing twine after cooking process. To clean pan with water or
any liquid using heat And a wooden spoon.
Demi-glace – Half Glaze. Made from a mother sauce.
Diced- One of the classic cuts, there are 3.
Dissolve - to mix a dry substance with liquid until the dry substance becomes a part of the
Dredge – To coat food with flour.
Du Jour – Of the day.
Duxelle – Chopped shallots And mushrooms cooked in butter.
Emince - Cut fine, or sliced thin.
Emulsify - The process of combining ingredients like water And oil with a binder. The blended
product is an emulsion. These blended combinations can last from a few minutes to a few days
depending on the ingredients. Mustard And egg yolks are two common emulsifiers.
Escalope - A very thinly sliced food, can be meat, fish, or vegetables.
En papillote – Technique of cooking in parchment paper.
Entrée – The main course.
Escargot – Edible snail.
Escalope - A very thinly sliced food, can be meat, fish, or vegetables.
Espanole – Basic brown sauce.
Evaporated Milk - A preserved milk that has much of the water content removed via
evaporation. It is similar to condensed milk, although not as sweet.
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